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**Check out my book (free online): “Exploring ES6”.** Updated version of this blog post: section “Union, intersection, difference”.

A recent question by Dmitry Moskowski reminded me: ECMAScript 6 sets have no methods for computing the union (e.g. `addAll`

), intersection (e.g. `retainAll`

) or difference (e.g. `removeAll`

). This blog post explains how to work around that limitation.

Union (`a`

∪ `b`

): create a set that contains the elements of both set `a`

and set `b`

.

```
let a = new Set([1,2,3]);
let b = new Set([4,3,2]);
let union = new Set([...a, ...b]);
// {1,2,3,4}
```

The pattern is always the same:

- Convert one or both sets to arrays.
- Perform the operation.
- Convert the result back to a set.

As explained in ^{[1]}, the spread operator (`...`

) inserts the elements of something iterable (like a set) into an array. Therefore, `[...a, ...b]`

means that `a`

and `b`

are converted to arrays and concatenated. It is equivalent to `[...a].concat([...b])`

.

Intersection (`a`

∩ `b`

): create a set that contains those elements of set `a`

that are also in set `b`

.

```
let a = new Set([1,2,3]);
let b = new Set([4,3,2]);
let intersection = new Set(
[...a].filter(x => b.has(x)));
// {2,3}
```

Steps: Convert `a`

to an array, filter the elements, convert the result to a set.

Difference (`a`

\ `b`

): create a set that contains those elements of set `a`

that are not in set `b`

. This operation is also sometimes called *minus* (`-`

).

```
let a = new Set([1,2,3]);
let b = new Set([4,3,2]);
let difference = new Set(
[...a].filter(x => !b.has(x)));
// {1}
```

This blog post showed how you can implement union, intersection and different for sets. Long-term, I expect JavaScript to have built-in functionality for this, e.g. via functions that operate on iterables (similar to Python’s itertools).