ECMAScript 6: arrow functions and method definitions

[2012-04-12] esnext, dev, javascript
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Follow-up blog post from 2013-08-11:Callable entities in ECMAScript 6”.

In JavaScript, one aspect of creating a function inside a method is difficult to get right: handling the special variable this. will make things easy by introducing two constructs: arrow functions and method definitions. This blog posts explains what they are and how they help.


For this blog post, we distinguish two kinds of callable entities:
  • A subroutine exists on its own and is called directly. In general, “function” would be a better word, but that has a broader meaning in JavaScript. Hence, JavaScripters normally say “non-method function” to a subroutine. I’m only using the term “subroutine”, because I couldn’t find a better one (other possibilities are: callback, procedure).
  • A method is part of an object o and called via an object (which isn’t necessarily the same object as o).
In JavaScript, both subroutines and methods are implemented by functions. For example:
    var obj = {
        myMethod: function () {
            setTimeout(function () { ... }, 0);
myMethod is a method, the first argument of setTimeout() is a subroutine. Both are implemented by functions. Before we can explain the implications of that, we need to make a few more definitions. Whenever a function is called, it is in two kinds of scopes (or contexts): Its lexical scopes are the syntactic constructs that surround it (a trait of the source code or the lexicon). Its dynamic scopes are the function that called it, the function that called that function, etc. Note the nesting that occurs in both cases. Free variables are variables that aren’t declared within a function. If such variables are read or written, JavaScript looks for them in the surrounding lexical scopes.

Functions work well as method implementations: They have a special variable called this that refers to the object via which the method has been invoked. In contrast to other free variables, this isn’t looked up in the surrounding lexical scopes, it is handed to the function via the invocation. As the function receives this dynamically, it is called dynamic this.

Functions don’t work well as implementations of subroutines, because this is still dynamic. The subroutine call sets it to undefined in strict mode [1] and to the global object, otherwise. That is unfortunate, because the subroutine has no use for its own this, but it shadows the this of the surrounding method, making it inaccessible. For example:

    var jane = {
        name: "Jane",
        logHello: function (friends) {
            var that = this;  // (*)
            friends.forEach(function (friend) {
                console.log( + " says hello to " + friend)
The argument of forEach is a subroutine. You need the assignment at (*) so that it can access logHello’s this. Clearly, subroutines should have lexical this, meaning that this should be treated the same as other free variables and looked up in the enclosing lexical scopes. that = this is a good work-around. It simulates lexical this, if you will. Another work-around is to use bind:
    var jane = {
        name: "Jane",
        logHello: function (friends) {
            friends.forEach(function (friend) {
                console.log( + " says hello to " + friend)
Now the argument of forEach has a fixed value for this. I can’t be changed, not even via call or apply. There are three problems with any simulation of lexical this:
  • You have to know how JavaScript’s quirky this works (which you should neither want to nor need to).
  • You have to constantly be alert as to when to simulate lexical this. That choice should be automatic and not require extra thought. A simulation incurs a performance and memory cost, so you’ll want to avoid it if you don’t need it.
  • There is more to type and more visual clutter.
Note that even CoffeeScript’s fairly elegant arrow functions have problems #1 and #2.

Arrow functions’s arrow functions are better suited for defining subroutines than normal functions, because they have lexical this. Using one for forEach looks as follows.
    let jane = {
        name: "Jane",
        logHello: function (friends) {
            friends.forEach(friend => {
                console.log( + " says hello to " + friend)
The “fat” arrow => (as opposed to the thin arrow ->) was chosen to be compatible with CoffeeScript, whose fat arrow functions are very similar.

Specifying arguments:

        () => { ... } // no argument
         x => { ... } // one argument
    (x, y) => { ... } // several arguments
Specifying a body:
    x => { return x * x }  // block
    x => x * x  // expression, equivalent to previous line
The statement block behaves like a normal function body. For example, you need return to give back a value. With an expression body, the expression is always implicitly returned. Having a block body in addition to an expression body means that if you want the expression to be an object literal, you have to put it in parentheses.

Note how much an arrow function with an expression body can reduce verbosity. Compare:

    let squares = [ 1, 2, 3 ].map(function (x) { return x * x });
    let squares = [ 1, 2, 3 ].map(x => x * x);

Implementing lexical this

For arrow functions, lexical this is implemented as follows. The arrow function
    x => x + this.y
is mostly syntactic sugar for
    function (x) { return x + this.y }.bind(this)
That expression creates two functions: First, the original anonymous function with the parameter x and dynamic this. Second, the bound function that is the result of bind. While an arrow function behaves as if it had been created via bind, it consumes less memory: Only a single entity is created, a specialized function where this is directly bound to the this of the surrounding function.

Arrow functions versus normal functions

An arrow function is different from a normal function in only three ways: First, it always has a bound this. Second, it can’t be used as a constructor: There is no internal method [[Construct]] (that allows a normal function to be invoked via new) and no property prototype. Therefore, new (() => {}) throws an error. Third, as arrow functions are an construct, they can rely on new-style argument handling (parameter default values, rest parameters, etc.) and don’t support the special variable arguments. Nor do they have to, because the new mechanisms can do everything that arguments can.

Apart from these simplifications, there is no observable difference between an arrow function and a normal function. For example, typeof and instanceof can be used as before:

    > typeof () => {}
    > () => {} instanceof Function

Syntactic variants under discussion

The following syntactic variants are still being discussed and might not be added to
  • Omitting the parameters:
        => { ... }
    With JavaScript’s automatic semicolon insertion [2], there is a risk of such an expression being wrongly considered as continuing a previous line. Take, for example, the following code.
        var x = 3 + a
        => 5
    These two lines are interpreted as
        var x = 3 + (a => 5);
    However, arrow functions will usually appear in expression context, nested inside a statement. Hence, I wouldn’t expect semicolon insertion to be much of a problem. If JavaScript had significant newlines [3] (like CoffeeScript) then the problem would go away completely.
  • Omitting the body:
        x =>
    That’s a function with a single parameter that always returns undefined. It is a synonym for the void operator [4]. I’m not sure how useful that is.
  • Named arrow functions: JavaScript already has named function expressions, where you give a function a name so that it can invoke itself. That name is local to that function, it doesn’t leak into any surrounding scopes. Named arrow functions would work the same. For example:
        let fac = me(n) => {
            if (n <= 0) {
                return 1;
            } else {
                return n * me(n-1);
        console.log(me); // ReferenceError: me is not defined

Parsing arrow functions

Most JavaScript parsers have a two-token look-ahead. How then is such a parser supposed to distinguish between the following two expressions?
    (x, y, z)
    (x, y, z) => {}
The first expression is the comma operator applied to three variables, in parentheses. The second expression is an arrow function. If you want to distinguish them at the beginning (at the opening parenthesis), you have to look head many tokens, until you either encounter the arrow or not.

To parse both of the above with a limited look-ahead, one uses a trick called cover grammar: One creates a grammar rule that covers both use cases, parses and then performs post-processing. If an arrow follows the closing parenthesis, some previously parsed things will raise an error and the parsed construct is used as the formal parameter list of an arrow function. If no arrow follows, other previously parsed things will raise an error and the parsed construct is an expression in parentheses. Some things can only be done in a parenthesized expression:

Other things can only be done in a parameter list. For example, declaring a rest parameter:
    (a, b,
Several things can be done in both contexts:
    (title = "no title")
The above is an assignment in expression context and a declaration of a default parameter value in arrow function context.

Possible arrow function feature: optional dynamic this

One arrow function feature, that has been deferred and might still be added, is the ability to switch to dynamic this. The use case for that feature is as follows. In jQuery, some arguments are subroutines that have this as an implicit parameter:
    $(".someCssClass").each(function (i) { console.log(this) });
You currently cannot write each’s argument as an arrow function, because call and apply cannot override the arrow function’s bound value for this. You would need to switch to dynamic this to do so:
    $(".someCssClass").each((this, i) => { console.log(this) });
Normally, no parameter can have the name this, so the above is a good marker for an arrow function with dynamic this.

Shouldn’t there be a simpler solution for optional dynamic this? Alas, two seemingly simpler approaches won’t work.

Non-solution: switching between dynamic and lexical this

One can conceivably change between dynamic and lexical this, depending on how a function is invoked. If it is invoked as a method, use dynamic this. If it is invoked as a subroutine, use lexical this. The problem is that that can lead to the function being invoked the wrong way: If the function is intended to be a subroutine, but invoked as a method, it will lose the link to the this of its lexical context. If the function is intended to be a method, but is invoked as a function, it assumes that it accesses its instance, but will instead access the this of its surroundings. ECMAScript 5 strict mode solves this issue by failing quickly: If a method is invoked as a subroutine, its this is undefined, leading to an error the first time it accesses a property. And subroutines can’t even do anything with their this, unless it is bound, in which case it will never change. will work the same, but make it harder to use a function the wrong way: Arrow functions will be the default subroutine and have fixed lexical this, method definitions (see below) will be the default method and can only be invoked via an object (with the problematic exception of methods that are extracted from their object).

Another problem with switching between the two kinds of this is security-related: You can’t control how a function you write will be used by clients, opening the door to inadvertently exposed secrets. Example: Let’s pretend there are “thin arrow functions” (defined via ->) that switch between dynamic and lexical this, on the fly.

    let objectCreator = {
        create: function (secret) {
            return {
                secret: secret,
                getSecret: () -> {
                    return this.secret;
        secret: "abc"
This is how one would normally use obj:
    let obj = objectCreator.create("xyz");
    // dynamic this:
    console.log(obj.getSecret()); // xyz
This is how an attacker could get access to objectCreator.secret:
    let obj = objectCreator.create("xyz");
    let func = obj.getSecret;
    // lexical this:
    console.log(func()); // abc

Non-solution: Let call or apply override the bound value of this.

That is problematic, because call or apply can accidentally break an arrow function that relies on this being lexical. Hence, this is too brittle a solution.

Arguing in favor of simplicity

I don’t think that we need optional dynamic this for arrow functions, it partially destroys their simplicity. Furthermore, having dynamic this available in something that is not a method goes against the grain of object-orientation. Every time an API hands an argument to a subroutine via this, it should instead introduce a real parameter. jQuery already allows you to do that for the each method:
    $(".someCssClass").each(function (i, ele) { console.log(ele) });
Another option is to use a normal function. Or you can wrap a normal function around an arrow function and pass this from the former to the latter, as an additional (prefixed) parameter. In the following code, method curryThis performs such wrapping.
        (that, ele) { console.log(that) }.curryThis()
curryThis can be implemented as follows [5]:
    Function.prototype.curryThis = function () {
        var f = this;
        return function () {
            var a =;
            return f.apply(null, a);

Method definitions

With arrow functions, the choice between dynamic this and lexical this has become automatic:
  1. Need to define a subroutine? Use an arrow function and automatically have lexical this.
  2. Need to define a method? Use a normal function and automatically have dynamic this.
#2 still isn’t optimal: Seeing the keyword function when defining a method is misleading. And you still have to think about two kinds of functions – people might accidentally use arrow functions to define methods (which will lead to errors as soon as this is accessed). To address this issue, gives methods their own syntactic construct: the method definition. It is simply a more compact way of defining a method. Method definitions also enable another feature: super references [6]. For those, a function needs to know which object it is stored in. A method definition automatically adds that information to a function. Method definitions can appear in two contexts: in class declarations and in object literals.

Method definitions in class declarations

One proposal that is currently being discussed for is called “maximally minimal classes” – minimal syntactic sugar for current practices (background on the class discussion: [7]). An example:
    class Point {
        constructor(x, y) {
            this.x = x;
            this.y = y;
        // Method definition:
        dist() {
            return Math.sqrt((this.x*this.x)+(this.y*this.y));
If accepted, class declarations would be great for newcomers and for tool support. It would also hopefully make it easier to share code between JavaScript frameworks (which currently tend to have different inheritance APIs). The foundations don’t change, a class declaration will internally be translated to a constructor function. dist is a method definition for Point.prototype.dist. As you can see, there is less to type and you won’t be tempted to incorrectly use an arrow function.

Method definitions in object literals

The first step towards having dedicated syntax for methods are class declarations, as explained above. The next step is to also provide method syntax for object literals. For example:
    let jane = {
        name: "Jane",
        // Method definition:
        logHello(friends) {
            friends.forEach(friend => {
                console.log( + " says hello to " + friend)
Again, you don’t see that logHello is a function, underneath. It looks like a method and will have dynamic this. That leaves us with one more use case: What if you want to add methods to an existing object, say:
    obj.method1 = function (...) { ... };
    obj.method2 = function (...) { ... };
Here, you still see old-school functions. However, will allow you to use an object literal, instead:
    Object.assign(obj, {
        method1(...) { ... },
        method2(...) { ... }

What do we really need?

In order to find out what is needed by actual JavaScript code, Kevin Smith surveyed a wide variety of code bases (jQuery, Facebook, Node.js, etc.). They contained a total of 20667 function expressions. Among them, he found the following distribution:

Arrow function candidates (AFCs)55.7%
    Expression body (return expr)8.9%
    Object literal body (return {...})0.14%
    Block with single statement20%
    Block with multiple statements26.7%
Methods (in object literal, with this)35.77%
AFCs or methods91.46%
Functions with this (outside object literal)8.54%


  • Arrow function candidates (AFCs) are function expressions without dynamic this; they don’t refer to this in (the immediate scope of) the body.
  • “Expression body” is a superset of “object literal body”.
  • Function expressions in an object literal that don’t refer to this are considered AFCs. In that case, the surrounding object is usually a namespace.
Many functions with (dynamic) this are probably about adding methods to an existing object. They could then be handled by’s Object.assign. Furthermore, as the survey was only to provide a rough estimate and the additional parsing effort was not worth it, the category “functions with this” in the table includes functions with a bound this, such as
    function (...) { ... }.bind(this)
Obviously, those are actually AFCs.

These findings mean that JavaScript most urgently needs easy ways to define subroutines (with lexical this) and methods. therefore makes the right choices. Another implication is that arrow functions with dynamic this are not that important, even for current JavaScript code. Lastly, having to parenthesize an object literal in an expression body is rarely an issue: only 0.14% of the function expressions return one.


You will hardly ever see old-school functions in
  • Constructor functions will (hopefully) be replaced by class declarations.
  • Functions as subroutines will be replaced by arrow functions.
  • Functions as methods will be replaced by method definitions.
I suspect that this clear separation of concerns is a bit difficult to get used to for experienced JavaScript programmers. But, in my opinion, it will make JavaScript a simpler language in the long run. Current functions playing triple duty is difficult to understand. However, they won’t go away, they are still available whenever you need the additional power.

More material on arrow functions


  1. JavaScript’s strict mode: a summary
  2. Automatic semicolon insertion in JavaScript
  3. What JavaScript would be like with significant newlines
  4. The void operator in JavaScript
  5. Uncurrying `this` in JavaScript
  6. A closer look at super-references in JavaScript and
  7. Myth: JavaScript needs classes