Checking for undefined: === versus typeof versus falsiness

[2013-04-19] dev, javascript, jslang
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There are several ways of checking whether a variable has the value undefined. This blog post explains the differences.

Checking via ===

Using strict equality [1] is the canonical way of checking for undefined:
    if (x === undefined) ...

Changing undefined

undefined is a property of the global object (and thus a global variable). Under ECMAScript 3, you could change its value. Under ECMAScript 5, you can’t do that, any more:
    > undefined = 123
    > undefined
You can, however, shadow it in a function, either via a parameter or via a local variable:
    > (function () { var undefined = 123; return undefined; }())
From now on, undefined is used to refer to the identifier, while undefined is used to refer to the actual value.

Because you could globally change the value of undefined under ECMAScript 3, two techniques were often used to ensure that it had the correct value. If you are targeting older browsers, these techniques are still relevant.

Technique 1: shadow undefined yourself.

    (function (undefined) {
        if (x === undefined) ...  // safe now
    }());  // don’t hand in a parameter
Above, undefined is a parameter whose value is undefined, because it has not been provided by the caller.

Technique 2: compare with void 0. The void operator [2] evaluates its operand, ignores the result and returns undefined. That means that void 0 will always evaluate to undefined.

    if (x === void 0)  // always safe

Checking via typeof

You can also check for undefined via the typeof operator [3]:
    if (typeof x === 'undefined') ...
This is more verbose and can be slower (though many engines optimize). It has two advantages: First, it is safe with regard to a changed undefined (not that important under ECMAScript 5). Second, it also works for unknown variables:
    > typeof iDontKnowThisVariable === 'undefined'
    > iDontKnowThisVariable === undefined
    ReferenceError: iDontKnowThisVariable is not defined

Checking for falsiness

undefined is falsy (interpreted as false in boolean contexts, [4]):
    > Boolean(undefined)
Hence, you can check for undefined like this:
    if (!x) ...
The usual caveat applies: The condition of the above if statement will also be true for: null, false, -0, +0, NaN, "".


Recommendation: check for undefined either via === undefined or via falsiness. It is normally more important for code to be easy to understand than to be completely safe. Therefore, checking via === void 0 is rarely a good choice.


  1. Equality in JavaScript: === versus ==
  2. The void operator in JavaScript
  3. Categorizing values in JavaScript
  4. JavaScript quirk 1: implicit conversion of values