ECMAScript proposal “Change Array by copy”: four new non-destructive Array methods

[2022-04-10] dev, javascript, es proposal
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This blog post describes the ECMAScript proposal “Change Array by copy” by Robin Ricard and Ashley Claymore. It proposes four new methods for Arrays and Typed Arrays:

  • .toReversed()
  • .toSorted()
  • .toSpliced()
  • .with()

The new methods are for Arrays and TypedArrays  

This blog post only demonstrates the new methods with Arrays, but they are also available for Typed Arrays – that is, instances of the following classes:

  • Int8Array
  • Uint8Array
  • Uint8ClampedArray
  • Int16Array
  • Uint16Array
  • Int32Array
  • Uint32Array
  • Float32Array
  • Float64Array
  • BigInt64Array
  • BigUint64Array

Destructive vs. non-destructive Array methods  

Most Array methods are non-destructive – they don’t change the Arrays that they are invoked on:

// Non-destructively removing every string 'b' from `arr`
const arr = ['a', 'b', 'b', 'a'];
const result = arr.filter(x => x !== 'b');
assert.deepEqual(result, ['a', 'a']);
assert.deepEqual(arr, ['a', 'b', 'b', 'a']);

However, there are also destructive methods such as .sort() that change their receivers:

// Destructively sorting `arr`
const arr = ['c', 'a', 'b'];
const result = arr.sort();

assert.deepEqual(result, ['a', 'b', 'c']);
assert.ok(result === arr); // (A)
assert.deepEqual(arr, ['a', 'b', 'c']);

arr.sort() first sorts the Array in place and then returns it. In line A we can see that arr, the receiver of the method call, and result, the value returned by the method, are the same object.

Destructive Array methods  

These Array methods are destructive:

  • .reverse()
  • .sort()
  • .splice()

If we want to apply one of these methods to an Array without changing it, we can use one of the following patterns:

const sorted1 = arr.slice().sort();
const sorted2 = [...arr].sort();
const sorted3 = Array.from(arr).sort();

That is, we first make a copy of arr and then change that copy.

The new non-destructive methods  

The proposal introduces non-destructive versions of the three destructive Array methods so that we don’t need the aforementioned patterns anymore:

  • .toReversed(): Array

    Non-destructive version of .reverse()

  • .toSorted(compareFn): Array

    Non-destructive version of .sort()

  • .toSpliced(start, deleteCount, ...items): Array

    Non-destructive version of .splice()

It also introduces a non-destructive method that has no corresponding destructive method:

  • .with(index, value): Array

    This method non-destructively replaces an Array element at a given index (think non-destructive version of arr[index]=value).

The next sections describe these four methods in more detail.

.toReversed(): Array  

.toReversed() is the non-destructive version of .reverse():

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];
  arr.toReversed(), ['c', 'b', 'a']
  arr, ['a', 'b', 'c']

This is a simple polyfill for .toReversed():

if (!Array.prototype.toReversed) {
  Array.prototype.toReversed = function () {
    return this.slice().reverse();

.toSorted(compareFn): Array  

.toSorted() is the non-destructive version of .sort():

const arr = ['c', 'a', 'b'];
  arr.toSorted(), ['a', 'b', 'c']
  arr, ['c', 'a', 'b']

This is a simple polyfill for .toSorted():

if (!Array.prototype.toSorted) {
  Array.prototype.toSorted = function (compareFn) {
    return this.slice().sort(compareFn);

.toSpliced(start, deleteCount, ...items): Array  

Method .splice() is more complicated than other destructive methods:

  • It deletes deleteCount elements, starting at index start.
  • It then inserts items at index start.
  • It returns the deleted elements.

In other words – deleteCount Array elements are replaced with items:

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'];
// .splice() returns the deleted elements
  arr.splice(1, 2, 'X'), [ 'b', 'c' ]
// `arr` was changed
  arr, [ 'a', 'X', 'd' ]

.toSpliced() is the non-destructive version of .splice(). It needs to return the changed version of its receiver and therefore doesn’t give us access to the deleted elements:

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd'];
  arr.toSpliced(1, 2, 'X'), [ 'a', 'X', 'd' ]
  arr, ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd']

This is a simple polyfill for .toSpliced():

if (!Array.prototype.toSpliced) {
  Array.prototype.toSpliced = function (start, deleteCount, ...items) {
    const copy = this.slice();
    copy.splice(start, deleteCount, ...items);
    return copy;

.with(index, value): Array  

This method call:

arr.with(index, value)

is the non-destructive version of:

arr[index] = value

The following code demonstrates how .with() works:

const arr = ['a', 'b', 'c'];
  arr.with(1, 'X'), ['a', 'X', 'c']
  arr, ['a', 'b', 'c']

This is a simple polyfill for .with():

if (!Array.prototype.with) {
  Array.prototype.with = function (index, value) {
    const copy = this.slice();
    copy[index] = value;
    return copy;

The new methods will also be available for Tuples  

The proposed ECMAScript feature Tuple is basically an immutable Array. Tuples have all methods that Arrays have – except for the destructive ones. Adding non-destructive versions of the latter to Arrays therefore helps Tuples and means that we can use the same methods to non-destructively change Arrays and Tuples.


The proposal lists implementations and polyfills that are currently available.

Further reading